Q: When I turn 70½ I’m required to start withdrawing funds from my 401(k) and pay taxes on it. I don’t need this money to live on. Is it too risky for me to invest it? – Dolores
A: What you’re referring to are required minimum distributions (RMD), which generally begin in the calendar year after you turn 70½.
Even if you can afford to keep your money parked in your retirement plans, the Internal Revenue Service insists that you start withdrawing money annually from your retirement accounts once you reach a certain age.
“It typically starts at 3% to 4% of the value of your account and goes up from there,” says Gretchen Cliburn, a certified financial planner with BKD Wealth Advisors headquartered in Springfield, Mo. You can estimate your RMD using a worksheet from the IRS.
Fail to withdraw the minimum and you’ll face a hefty penalty – 50% on the amount that should have been withdrawn, plus regular income taxes.
“Where things can get confusing is if you have multiple accounts,” says Cliburn. “I recommend consolidating accounts so you avoid missing an RMD.”
To add to the confusion, you can take your first distribution the year you turn 70½, or postpone it until April 1 the following calendar year – though you’ll need to take double the distributions that year. Likewise, if you’re still working, you’ll need to take RMDs on your IRAs, but you can delay taking distributions on your 401(k) or other employer-sponsored plan until the year after you retire.
Now, what should you do with that distribution?
“The answer really depends on your situation and your goals for that money,” says Cliburn. “Will you use it to support your lifestyle over the next 10 or 20 years, or do you want it to go to future generations?”
“If you want to hang onto those funds, your best bet is to open a taxable investment account and divide the distributions into three buckets,” she says. One bucket can be cash; another bucket might go into a balanced mutual fund, which owns stocks and bonds; the final bucket might go to a tax-efficient exchange-traded stock fund, such as one that tracks the S&P 500.
Just how much goes into each bucket depends on your other sources of income. “If you have a guaranteed source of income, you may feel more comfortable taking on a little more risk,” says Cliburn.
If you’re absolutely certain that you won’t need these required minimum distributions to live on — and that you have other funds to cover your retirement living expenses — then you could use the distributions to help others, and possibly get some tax savings.
You need earned income to contribute to a Roth IRA. But you could, for example, help your children fund a Roth IRA (assuming they qualify). You can gift any individual up to $14,000 a year before you have to file a gift tax return. They’ll make after-tax contributions to the Roth, but the money will grow tax-deferred. Withdrawals of principal are tax-free — provided the account has been open at least five years — and all withdrawals are tax free after the account holder turns 59½.
Another option is to open or contribute to a 529 college savings plan. The money grows tax-deferred and withdrawals for qualified education expenses are exempt from federal and state tax. Depending on where you or your children live, there may be a state tax deduction to boot.
A tax-free charitable transfer is another possibility, though you’ll need to wait to see if so-called qualified charitable contributions, or QCDs, are renewed for the 2015 tax year. Taxpayers didn’t hear about last year’s renewal until December.
Assuming it’s a go, it’s a sweet deal. Last year, IRA owners age 70½ or over were able to directly transfer up to $100,000 per year from their accounts to eligible charities, sans tax.