Here are key changes to U.S. tax law for individuals and businesses that have emerged from the final Republican bill that’s headed for votes in the House and Senate next week.
Individual Tax Rates
(Note: Individual rate cuts would expire after 2025.)
Seven rates, starting at 10 percent and reaching 39.6 percent for incomes above $418,401 for singles and $470,701 for married, joint filers.
Seven rates, starting at 10 percent and reaching 37 percent for incomes above $500,000 for singles and $600,000 for married, joint filers.For joint filers: 10 percent: $0 to $19,050 12 percent: $19,050 to $77,400 22 percent: $77,400 to $165,000 24 percent: $165,000 to $315,000 32 percent: $315,000 to $400,000 35 percent: $400,000 to $600,000 37 percent: $600,000 and above
For single filers:
10 percent: $0 to $9,525 12 percent: $9,525 to $38,700 22 percent: $38,700 to $70,000 24 percent: $70,000 to $160,000 32 percent: $160,000 to $200,000 35 percent: $200,000 to $500,000 37 percent: $500,000 and above
Corporate Tax Rate
Current law: 35 percent
Proposed: 21 percent, beginning in 2018.
Corporate Alternative Minimum Tax
Current law: Applies a 20 percent rate as part of a parallel tax system that limits tax benefits to prevent large-scale tax avoidance. Companies must calculate their ordinary tax and AMT tax, and pay whichever is higher.
Current law: Pass-through businesses, which include partnerships, limited liability companies, S corporations and sole proprietorships, pass their income to their owners, who pay tax at their individual rates.
Proposed: Owners could apply a 20 percent deduction to their business income, subject to limits that would begin at $315,000 for married couples (or half that for single taxpayers).
Current law: $6,350 standard deduction for single taxpayers and $12,700 for married couples, filing jointly.
Proposed: $12,000 standard deduction for single taxpayers and $24,000 for married couples, filing jointly.
Individual State and Local Tax Deductions
Current law: Individuals can deduct the state and local taxes they pay, but the value is subject to certain limits for high earners.
Proposed: Individuals can deduct no more than $10,000 worth of the deductions, which could include a combination of property taxes and either sales or income taxes.
Obamacare Individual Mandate
Current law: An individual who fails to buy health insurance must pay penalties of $695 (higher for families) or 2.5 percent of their household income — whichever is higher, but capped at the national average cost of the most basic, low-premium, high-deductible plan.
Proposed: Repeal the penalties.
Mortgage Interest Deduction
Current law: Deductible mortgage interest is capped at loans of $1 million.
Proposed: Deductible mortgage interest for new purchases of first or second homes would be capped at loans of $750,000.
Medical Expense Deduction
Current law: Qualified medical expenses that exceed 10 percent of the taxpayer’s adjusted gross income are deductible.
Proposed: Reduce the threshold to 7.5 percent of AGI for 2018 and 2019.
Child Tax Credit
Current law: A $1,000 credit for each child under 17. The credit begins phasing out for couples earning more than $110,000. The credit is at least partially refundable to qualified taxpayers who earned more than $3,000.
Proposed: Double the credit to $2,000 and provide it for each child under 18 through 2024. Raise the phase-out amount to $500,000, and cap the refundable portion at $1,400 in 2018.
Current law: Applies a 40 percent levy on estates worth more than $5.49 million for individuals and $10.98 million for couples.
Proposed: Double the thresholds so the levy applies to fewer estates. The higher thresholds would sunset in 2026.