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Last week, the EPA accused Volkswagen of deliberately falsifying tests of its diesel engine cars so that the vehicles would pass anti-pollution standards. A massive recall of nearly half a million Volkswagen diesel cars was ordered, causing a major stir in the industry—and especially among VW owners who had been drawn to the vehicles because of the automaker's "clean diesel" claims.

Let's look at the situation by the numbers.

482,000 Diesel cars affected, which include TDI Jettas, Beetles, Golfs, and Audi A3s from 2009-15 and Passats from 2014-15.

$37,500 Fine per vehicle that the German automaker could face in the U.S.

$18 billion Possible total penalties faced by Volkswagen, and that figure doesn't include fixing the recalled cars.

40 Times over the legal limit of certain types of pollution emitted by the vehicles, including nitrogen oxide—which can cause respiratory problems.

$6,855 Premium that buyers were paying for Passat TDI cars over standard gasoline versions.

-20% The hit Volkswagen stock has taken since the scandal.

12 Number of months Volkswagen has been denying cheating on the emissions test.

2017 When Volkswagen may sell diesel cars again in the U.S., now that sales have been halted.

2.0 Liter 4-cylinder engines affected. Larger diesel engines used in SUVs don't have the software at the center of the controversy.

$0 Current resale value of affected cars in California, because the cars were sold as "non-compliant" (and therefore cannot be resold).

14.28% Of affected cars that are registered in California

23 Percentage of Volkwagens sold in August that were diesels.